» Parasitology Division

Major Achievements


Milestones

Creation of Section of Protozoology1931
Renaming the Section as Veterinary Zoology1939
Establishment of a full fledged Division of Parasitology1954
Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Memorial Award1964-65
Development of sheep lung worm vaccine1973
Development of Theileria schizont vaccine1979
Patents granted for Babesia bigemina specific primer2015

1951-1960

  • Epidemiology of ‘surra’, caused by Trypanosoma evansi and its virulence in different hosts were studied and a diagnostic test based on precipitation of beta and gamma globulins for detection of latent surra in cattle was developed.
  • Various species of Eimeria prevalent in cattle and buffaloes were identified; their morphological and biological characters were studied. The life cycle, pathology and cytology of E. tenella were illustrated.
  • The detailed eco-geographical distribution, bionomics and control measures against 3 species of Hypoderma were studied. A singing method for the destruction of their eggs was developed. Dessalt-ox @3.5 - 4.0% in water was found highly effective for the control of warble flies in cattle.
  • The extensive survey of tabanid flies and Stomoxys calcitrans was conducted in and around Bareilly in the western Uttar Pradesh province with reference to the transmission of surra.
  • The tick parasite, Hunterellus hookeri was recorded and evaluated for the biological control of Hyalomma ticks.
  • The morphology and life cycle of a cestode, Cotugnia srivastavai n.sp. from the domestic pigeon were studied for which Monomorium destructor was found to act as intermediate host.
  • Histochemical and histomorphological characters and egg shell formation in Gastrothylax crumenifer were comprehensively studied.
  • Work on schistosome dermatitis revealed that two types of schistosome cercariae namely, Cercaria srivastavai and C. hardayali are responsible for this malady. Work on animal schistosomosis included studies on life cycle of Schistosoma indicum, S. incognitum and Orientobilharzia dattai including creation of two new genera Orientobilharzia and Sinobilharzia from genus Ornithobilharzia.
  • The life cycle of Gigantocotyle explanatum, Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfexs, Pseudodiscus collinsi, Toxocara vitulorum, Ascaridia galli, Moniezia benedeni and M expansa were studied and the snail intermediate hosts of the flukes were identified.

1961-1970

  • Chemotherapeutic trial of surra (Trypanosoma evansi) using suramin, antricide, pentamidine, stilbamidine and nitrofurazone etc. was studied. Immunological studies revealed the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Passive transfer of immunity was also observed. The gamma irradiated trypanosomes induced some degree of immunity in rats with good antibody titre.
  • The pathogenicity and successful chemotherapy with sulphamezathine of coccidian species of sheep and goats were studied. A new coccidial species Eimeria bareillyi n. sp. from buffaloes was reported.
  • The seasonal and regional variation on the occurrence of muscid flies in different agroclimatic zones of India revealed higher (49.24%) prevalence of Musca conducens in Assam and absence in Karanataka and Uttar Pradesh. As many as, 12 species of Musca were recorded in U.P. which were not recorded from Assam and Kamataka.
  • Studies on ticks particularly taxonomy, host-range, life cycle and geographical distribution of, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, Hyalomma marginatum isaaci and Ornithodoros savignyi were conducted. Besides Boophilus microplus, occurrence of B. annulatus, Hyalomma (Hyalommina) kumari and Nosomma monstrosum were reported for the first time in India.
  • The one-host cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Latoli strain) was found to be resistant to lindane for the first time in India.
  • A series of transmission experiments with Boophilus microplus and Hyalomma (H.) a. anatolicum in the transmission of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata and T. mutans were conducted.
  • Bionomics, biology, pathogenicity and chemotherapy of Schistosoma incognitum were studied and life cycle of S. nasale, Gastrodiscoides hominis was elucidated.
  • Relationship of trace elements with Fasciola gigantica infection in sheep was investigated.
  • Life cycle of Gigantocotyle explanatum and Fasciolopsis buski was studied. Work on incidence, diagnosis and control of immature amphistomosis, sheep lung worm infection and cerebrospinal nematodosis was carried out.
  • Immunological response with radiation attenuated metacercariae against Fasciola gigantica infection was studied.
  • Work on gamma irradiated (50krad) vaccine against Dictyocaulus filaria in sheep and goats was initiated with particular reference to infective dose, incidence and susceptibility of laboratory animals.
  • An All India Coordinated Research Project (1969-1974) on 'Biology and Control of Stephanofilarial Dermatitis in Domestic Animals' came into operation with an off-shore centre at Port Blair (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), and a centre in Orissa. Musca conducens, a haematophagous fly was found to act as vector of Stephanofilaria assamensis, the causative agent of ‘hump-sore’ in cattle.
  • The monumental work on Schistosoma indicum and Orientobilharzia dattai, the blood flukes of domestic animals won the prestigious 'Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Memorial Award' in 1964-65 to Dr. H.D. Srivastava and Dr. S.C. Dutt.

1971-1980

  • Successful chemotherapy of experimental Babesia bigemina and B. argentina infection using imidocarb dihydrochloride was documented. Anticoccidial effects of decox, zoamlX, bifuran, codrinal, novastat-90, whitsyn-3, monensin, lasalocid etc. was studied against Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix and E. maxima infection in poultry.
  • A strain of Tritrichomonas foetus isolated from bovids was maintained in vitro and a laboratory mouse assay was standardized for testing the pathogenicity.
  • Isolates of Theileria annulata were characterized and an in vitro cultivation technique of lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with T. annulata was standardized. Transtadial transmission of T. annulata by the tick vectors Hyalomma a. anatolicum and H. dromedarii was established. Stabilate (GUTTS) preparation and cryopreservation were standardized.
  • Anaplasma marginale from cattle, sheep and goats was isolated and clinico- pathological studies were carried out. Chemotherapeutic index of six drugs including imizol, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride etc. in bovine anaplasmosis was ascertained. Effect of irradiation on Anaplasma marginale infected bovine blood in goats was studied to understand its immunoprophylactic potential.
  • Field trials of dieldrin (0.1-0.2%), asuntol (0.5%), neguvon (0.15%) and lindane (0.05%) were found effective against sarcoptic mange in buffaloes.
  • Dimecron, sumithion, gamma BHC, dursban and supona-20 were evaluated in vitro against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. Supona-20 was found most effective followed by dursban, gamma BHC, sumithion and dimecron. In a field trial, the fortnightly spray of the OP compounds @ 0.125% were found to make the cattle free from all stages of Boophilus microplus without any adverse effect. Irrespective of the acaricide and the concentration, the engorged nymphs and nymphs in the process of moulting were found most resistant.
  • The 'sterile-male release technique' was used by irradiating and treating the nymphs and adults of Argas persicus, with chemosterilants namely, tepa, thiotepa and apholate for successful biological control of the poultry soft tick.
  • The sterilization of Hyalomma (H) dromedarii without the loss of mating competitiveness was obtained by irradiating its adults at 1 to 1.5 krad, while its larvae and nymphs succumbed to irradiation with no further development.
  • The adult males of Stomoxys calcitrans when treated with chemosterilants, apholate and tepa, were fully sterilized and mated with normal females. The laboratory reared S. calcitrans when subjected to sublethal doses of dieldrin and DDT for 30 generations developed resistance against dieldrin both at 70% and 90% mortality levels.
  • Work conducted under an AICRP on stephanofilarial dermatitis in domestic animals at Bhubneshwar and Izatnagar reaffirmed that Musca conducens acts as vector of Stephanofilaria assamensis (humpsore). Chemotherapeutic trials revealed that 6% neguvon along with sulphonamide powder (10%) was effective against the disease. Studies on earsore caused by S. zaheeri vectored by Musca planiceps and M autumnalis (mechanically) showed seasonal occurrence. A pilot eradication programme of humpsore disease in cattle was successfully undertaken in Andamans.
  • A double-dose of irradiated larval vaccine against lung-worm, given subcutaneously, elicited a strong acquired immunity in guinea-pigs. In further laboratory and field trials in sheep and goats, the vaccine was found highly effective for the control of lungworm infection. The vaccine developed at IVRI gave better protective index in comparison to the vaccine developed in Yugoslavia. The nature of immunity was found to be cell-mediated rather than humoral.
  • The use of 'Difil' (Dictyocaulus filaria irradiated larva) vaccine was found to significantly reduce the incidence of lungworms in sheep from the temperate Himalayan region. A Regional Centre of IVRI for mass production of irradiated "Lungworm Vaccine" (first metazoan parasite vaccine) was established at Srinagar in 1973.
  • Laboratory trials with 4000 irradiated (40-60krad) infective larvae (single and double dose) of Haemonchus contortus gave promising results. The L3 and mature male and female H. contortus in sheep and rabbits were found to increase the cutaneous vascular permeability due to release of histamine by degranulating mast cells at the site of infection. Peritoneal cells when sensitized with antiserum were found to play a significant role in causing damage to the juveniles and an effective immunity against the parasite.
  • In an immunity trial in Fasciola gigantica, the irradiated (2-3krad) metacercariae produced considerable immunity in rabbits with detectable immune response.

1981-1990

  • The infectivity and immunogenicity of T. annulata infected bovine lymphoblastoid cells in in vitro culture were evaluated and complete attenuation was discernible at 50 passage level. The degree of protective immunity was established by laboratory and field trials. The technology of “Live attenuated schizont vaccine of T. annulata” was released by Technology Release Committee (TRC) of IVRI, Izatnagar.
  • An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using schizont antigen was standardized to evaluate the immunological responses.
  • Theileria hirci from pashmina goats and T. dromedarii n. sp. from dromedary camels were recorded. The chemotherapeutic/chemoprophylactic efficacy of parvaquone, buparvaquone and LA oxytetracyclines against T annulata was evaluated.
  • Twenty two acaricidal compounds of different chemical nature including the latest synthetic pyrethroids were evaluated in vitro against various stages of ixodid ticks, followed by in vivo trials in naturally infested cattle and buffaloes.
  • The bionomics of R. haemaphysaloides, H (H) dromedarii, H (H) marginatum isaaci and Orinothodoros savignyi were studied. The ecogeographical distribution of boophilid and rhipicephalid ticks was mapped. Periodical survey of cattle and buffaloes ticks over five consecutive years indicated that the seasonally active multi-host ticks species of Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus are replaced by one-host tick, B. micro plus on cattle, but not in buffaloes.
  • Assessment of infectivity of T. annulata in hyalommid ticks by methylgreen pyronin staining technique was standardized and infectivity rates of field collected ticks was found to vary.
  • In radiobiologic studies of Dictyocaulus filaria, it was found that irradiated L3 (2-5 krad) completed migration up to lungs. Prepatent period was prolonged to 53 days at 2 krad dose and the larvae did not survive beyond 8 days. A high dose of 50 krad caused depletion of glycogen and DNA in the L3 larvae of D. filaria found to be associated with membrane bound antigens. Secretory products of D. filaria were highly immunogenic and protective. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of D. filaria was described.
  • In Gaigeria pachyscelis, two polypeptides (58 and 74 kDa), present in the cuticle were found to interact with immunoglobulins and were found protective in guinea- pigs against hookworm infection.
  • Piglets, golden hamsters, guinea-pigs and mice were used as experimental models of Echinococcus granulosus. CMI response was noticed against protoscolices (PSC) antigen, whereas hydatid fluid (HF) antigen produced anaphylaxis. Antibodies were detected as early as 1-2 weeks post-infection in pups. Echinococcus antibodies were detected at 16 days PI in infected pups using PSC antigens. Both, PSCs (buffalo) and ES antigens were found to be immunogenic in dogs. Increasing radiation doses (40-50 krad) caused decrease in number and size of cysts, as well as, adult parasites in dogs.
  • The life cycle and developmental pattern of the bovine ascarid worm, Toxocara vitulorum was worked out for the first time in experimental laboratory animals. The infection in calves was found to occur predominantly through milk while suckling.
  • Two subspecies of Lymnea auricularia viz., L. auricularia sensu lato rufescens and L. auricularia sensu stricto were reported as intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica; the latter being reported for the first time. Laboratory-bred 10-14 week-old snails were found more suitable for production of metacercariae with a prepatent period 60-85 days. Various indigenous plant products tested for their molluscididal properties in laboratory/field revealed that the oil of Cedrus deodara has 100% molluscicidal and ovicidal activity at as low as 20 ppm against aquatic snails acting as intermediate hosts for various trematode parasites of domestic animals and birds. Channa punctatus fish was found to be predatory to the snails.
  • Immunization against fasciolosis revealed that the metacercariae of liver-fluke irradiated at 3.5 krad provided 85% protection against challenge infection in goats. Irradiated, metacercariae at 3-6 krad did not confer any immunity in rabbits. Guinea-pigs and rabbits were found susceptible to experimental infection with fluke maturing in rabbits by 22 days PI.
  • Microaerophilous stationary phase (MASP) culture technique using Babesia bigemina (Mexican isolate) was successfully adopted and vaccine protocol for laboratory scale was standardized. The immunomodulatory role of Mycobacterium phlei in bovine babesiosis was demonstrated.
  • The coccidian species parasitising Japanese quails were identified from five geographical regions of the country. Anticoccidial effects of arprinocid, monensin, halofuginone and amprolium on exogenous and endogenous stages of coccidia were evaluated. The influence of dietary aflatoxins on the severity of Eimeria uzura infection was investigated.
  • A laboratory technique was developed for mass collection of meta cercariae using polythene sheets. Laboratory bred snails I. exustus and G. convexiusculus could be experimentally infected with P. epiclitum and G. crumenifer. Immature paramphistomiosis could be produced in young lambs and kids with single or mixed infection with paramphistome species showing degenerative changes in the duodenal mucosa.

1991-2000

  • Indoplanorbis exustus proved as intermediate host of Paramphistomum epiclitum both under natural and experimental condition for the first time
  • Polypeptide profile/antigenic composition of Theileria annulata (schizont and piroplasm antigen) were analyzed. The role of CMI in T. annulata infection in cattle was correlated with lymphocyte proliferation assay.
  • An improved ELISA and dipstick ELISA for sensitive detection of T. annulata were developed with an immunodominant 32 kDa piroplasm antigen.
  • A DNA hybridization assay and a sensitive polymerase chain assay were standardized for early prepatent detection of T. annulata in lymphnode and blood of carrier cattle.
  • Babesia bigemina piroplasm antigens were isolated, purified and characterized. The efficacy of IFAT, ELISA and Dot-ELISA and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) was evaluated for the diagnosis of bovine babesiosis.
  • A battery of serodiagnostic tests viz. IFAT, ELISA, Dot-ELISA, sELISA, EITB, CIEP, CI-ELISA were standardized for detection of latent cases of T. evansi in cattle and camels. Further, a sensitive polymerase chain reaction for detection of T. evansi was standardized and tested in camels.
  • The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting of T. evansi of bubaline, cameline and equine origin was studied and the monomorphic and polymorphic fingerprints from the parasite genome were identified.
  • Controlled laboratory studies on the use of H. a. anatolicum candidate antigens (39 kDa and 37 kDa) as immunogens gave promising results conferring 54 to 70.75% protection against various stages upon challenge.
  • A Dot-ELISA detected antibodies against Fasciola gigantica in experimentally infected goats and rabbits at 2 weeks PI. Major immunodominant (26 to 30 kDa) were identified for use in immunodiagnosiis.
  • An in vitro egg hatch assay was standardized to monitor anthelmintic (thiabendazole) resistance in Haemonchus contortus.
  • A new paramphistome belonging to genus Orthocoelium was designated as O. harishi n. sp. Cercaria sewelii was recorded for the first time from Indoplanorbis exustus.
  • An enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay was standardized for early detection and quantitation of antibodies in pups experimentally infected with Echinococcus granulosus with no cross-reactivity to Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps. Metabolic antigen showed immunoprotective potential with a significant reduction in the recovery of cysts following immunization in buffalo calves.
  • A precocious line of Eimeria tenella was developed with a prepatent period of 120 hr after 15 generations of selection for precocity. The precocious line was less pathogenic. The random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns of the wild (unselected) and precocious (selected) strain studied by AP-PCR showed discernible genetic variation (DNA polymorphism).

2001-2010

  • Epidemiological data on theileriosis, fasciolosis, toxocarosis and GI nematodosis from different agro-climatic zones of India were generated. Presence of high abundance but low intensity of Theileria annulata infection in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks indicated “enzootic stability”.
  • Diagnostic antigen for early detection of fasciolosis were identified and a dot-ELISA kit having high sensitivity and specificity was developed and evaluated under field conditions.
  • Native variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) based latex agglutionation test, recombinant VSG based ELISA and nested PCR, were standardized for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in calves.
  • Several target proteins of Toxoplasma gondii origin viz. SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, GRA-1, GRA-4, GRA-5, GRA-7, ROP-7, MIC-3 were expressed and studied for their diagnostic and protective role in murine and caprine models. A recombinant SAG1 protein has been validated for sensitive ELISA based detection of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised humans.
  • A real time PCR assay was developed and optimized for sensitive molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii.
  • The acaricide resistance factor (RF) of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were determined in India. The range of RF of OP compounds ranged from 3.6 to 66.0 with highest RF value in the ticks of Banswara (Rajasthan), while for synthetic pyrethroid it ranged from 2.0 to 34.9 with highest RF in the ticks of Sultanpur (Bihar).
  • Reference acaricide resistant tick lines of one host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were generated.
  • Herbal extracts were developed with proven activities against resistant cattle ticks under NAIP Project.
  • A nested-PCR and PCR-RFLP based detection of Cryptosporidium infection in calves was developed.
  • An allele specific PCR for detection of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus was standardized.
  • A diagnostic polypeptide of 120 kDa was found to detect early prepatent infection of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and did not cross-react with Fasciola gigantica, Paramphistomum epiclitum and Oesophagostomum columbianum.

2011-2016

  • Experiments on comparative efficacy of rHaa86 based tick vaccine and GAVAC vaccine revealed that rHaa86 vaccination could be used for the control of both H. a. anatolicum and R. (B.) microplus infestations.
  • A diagnostic dot- ELISA based test for the diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus infection was developed.
  • Repository of reference tick lines ( IVRI i ,ii, iii, iv & v ) were developed for testing herbal acaricides
  • Multiplex PCR based on SCAR markers and ITS-1 based nested PCR for species level identification of Eimeria oocysts of poultry and a real time PCR for quantification of Eimeria tenella oocysts were standardized.
  • Point mutation of cytocine ( C ) to adenine (A) nucleotide substitution (CTC to ATC) at position 190 in domain II S4-5 linker region of Na channel gene was identified in acaricide resistant field isolate of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus.
  • Allele specific PCRs for detection of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Mecistocirrus digitatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei and equine small strongyles were developed.
  • rSAG1 and rMIC3 based ELISAs were evaluated for their serodiagnostic potential in toxoplasmosis. The results revealed 78.3% and 86.9% sensitivity and 90.6% and 93.9% specificity of the two proteins, respectively.
  • Two IPR protected herbal acaricides were developed, which showed 70 to 87% protection against tick infestation in cattle during the multi-location field trial. The active compounds of the acaricides were identified as Rutin and Precocene I.
  • Cryptosporidium parvum was detected as the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves followed by Coronavirus and Rotavirus.
  • Trypanosomes irradiated at 490 and 500Gy (Co60 source) could confer cent percent protection against homologous challenge in mice.
  • LAMP assay targeting hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene and indirect-ELISA, dot-ELISA and sandwich-ELISA using rBgSA-1 protein were developed for diagnosing Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.
  • Pure (cloned) line of a north Indian Eimeria tenella isolate has been generated, characterized and is being maintained in the laboratory for future use.
  • A novel glucose transporter protein gene was identified in Fasciola gigantica which may be a potential drug or vaccine target.
  • Immunization of chicken with rIMP-1 provided 69% reduction in parasite burden when compared to the unimmunized challenged birds.

PATENTS GRANTED

IVRI

PATENTS FILED

  • Production of rHAA86 antigen of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Pichia pastoris. 2133/DEL/2007
  • Oligonucleotide primer sequences for specific and sensitive detection of T. evansi by nested polymerase chain reaction. 75/DEL/2008
  • A process for expression of variable surface glyco-protein of T. evansi in Pichia pastoris. 2449/DEL/2010
  • A phytopharmaceutical preparation for the control of acaricide resistant tick infestations in animals. 2452/DEL/2010
  • An ecofriendly hebal acaricide to control ticks including acaricide resistant species infesting livestock and pet animals. 2163/DEL/2011

No. of trainings imparted

Nine(9)