» Network Programme

Network Programme on G.I.Parasitism(ICAR-Scheme)



Gastrointestinal parasitism (GIP) is a serious concern to the livestock industry throughout the world including India. G.I. nematodes cause heavy economic losses in terms of high morbidity, reduction in live weight gain, reduction in wool and milk production, adverse effect on reproductive performance, high treatment costs and even mortality. Adverse effect of gastrointestinal parasites may persist even after majority of parasite population has been eliminated. Cost of treatment due Haemonchus infection (most common GI nematode infecting ruminants) in India has been estimated to be approximately Rs. 500 crores per annum.


  • To generate epidemiological data on GI parasitism in livestock in India
  • Mapping of important gastrointestinal helminthes in different agro-climatic and eco-pathological zones
  • Preparation of bioclimatographs in different agro-climatic zones
  • To develop forecasting methods

Objectives: XII Plan:

  • Application of already developed methods and models for forecasting of G.I. Parasitism in different agro-climatic zones.
  • Epidemiological studies on gastrointestinal parasites in different agroclimatic zones.
  • Preparation of bioclimatographs and forecasting of G.I. nematode infection.
  • Estimation of economic losses due to G.I. parasitism in ruminants
  • Identification and evaluation of various antigens (native & recombinant) for immunodiagnosis and immunoprophylaxis against Haemonchus contortus.
  • Mapping of anthelmintic resistance in livestock in different agro climatic zones utilizing conventional and molecular techniques.
  • Identification of plant based anthelmintics against G.I. parasites.
  • Studies on breed resistance against G.I. parasites in different agro climatic zones

Co-ordinating Unit:

  • ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar

Collaborating Centres:

  • ICAR-CSWRI, Avikanagar
  • College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, NDPCVV, Jabalpur (M.P.)
  • Madras Veterinary College, TANUVAS, Chennai (Tamil Nadu.)
  • Veterinary College, WBUA&FS, Belgachhia, Kolkata (West Bengal)
  • College of Veterinary Science, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) *
  • ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umaim (Meghalaya)*
  • ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Gangtok (Sikkim)*
  • * Centres up to 31st March 2015

Scientific staff:

Coordinating Unit, IVRI, Izatnagar (Uttar Pradesh)

  • Dr.B.P. Mishra : Project Coordinator
  • Dr. Arvind Prasad: Principal Investigator

Collaborating Centres:

CSWRI,Avikanagar (Rajasthan)

  • Dr. Dhirendra Singh, Principal Investigator

NDPCVV, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)

  • Dr. Gridhari Das, Principal Investigator

Madras Veterinary College, TANUVAS, Chennai (Tamil Nadu)

  • Dr. S. Gomathinayagam, Principal Investigator, (w.e.f. 27.05.2015)

WBUA&FS, Kolkata (West Bengal)

  • Dr. J. D. Ghosh, Principal Investigator

Overall achievements:

  • Epidemiological studies and preparation of Bioclimatograph in different agro climatic zones in different states (U.P, Uttarakahand, Rajasthan, M.P, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Sikkim) has enabled to predict most favorable period for infection to livestock which has helped in formulating control programmes.
  • A software based mathematical model “FROGIN” for forecasting of GIN (particularly H. contortus) in sheep of Rajasthan has been developed and evaluated on farm and field flock.
  • Eye Color chart developed by CSWRI, Avikanagar could successfully determine status of anaemia in sheep for Targeted Selective Treatment (TST).
  • Haemonchus contortus has emerged as predominant infection in small ruminants which is also prevalent in large ruminants as well as yak in north east region of the country.
  • In Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus was recorded in different organized farms
  • Resistance to Haemonchus infection has been evaluated in Garole and cross of Garole and Malpura in terms of strongyle infection. Garole has been found more resistant /resilient to Haemonchus infection when parameters like haemoglobin, PCV%,and EPG were considered.
  • A suitable device for delivering nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans to sheep has been developed at CSWRI, Avikanagar. Feeding of chlamydospore incorporated in feed block was found to be a practical way of biological control agent.

Achievements of Coordinating Unit, IVRI, Izatnagar

  • Benzimidazole resistance recorded by allele specific PCR in Haemonchus larvae from different agro climatic zones of U.P. Molecular diagnosis of benzimidazole resistance has helped in early diagnosis of resistance in the larval population which was superior to conventional egg hatch assay test and faecal egg count reduction test.
  • At organized farm in U.P two drench deworming schedule could effectively control GI parasitism.
  • Dot-ELISA test developed could detect subclinical haemonchosis in sheep and goat having low grade infection with EPG 200 and worm burden as low as ten worms only.
  • In equines, Cyathostormum larvae were predominant (56-96%) in all the agro climatic zones of U.P.
  • Genotyping of Cyathostomum larvae by AS-PCR for detection of Benzimidazole resistance revealed higher frequency of homozygous resistant larvae at intensively managed farm at U.S Nagar (Tarai).
  • In preliminary immunization experiment immunoaffinity purified fraction of somatic antigen of Haemonchus contortus conferred 82.4% reduction in worm burden in immunized group as compared to unimmunized control after challenge in Muzaffarnagri sheep.
  • Doramectin resistance was recorded in a goat farm at Uttarakhand already having benzimidazole resistant population of Haemonchus in the animals.

Current Publications:

Papers published:

  1. Allaie, I.M., Prasad, A. and Sankar, M. (2014) Cysteine proteinase genes in Indian strain of Haemonchus contortus Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.196: 117-121.
  2. Aravindan Kalyanasundaram, Shabnam Jawahar, Manikkavasagan Ilangopathy, Azhahianambi,P, Muthusamy Raman (2015). Comparative immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant Haemonchus contortus enolase (rHcENO) and Con A purified native glycoproteins in sheep. Exp. Parasitol., 154: 98–107.
  3. Chandra. S; Prasad, A; Yadav, N; Latchumikantan, A; Rakesh, R.L; Praveen, K; Khobra, V; Subramani, K.V; Misri, J; Sankar, M (2015) Status of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus of goats from different geographic region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Vet Parasitol.208: 263-267.
  4. Prasad, A., Nidhi Yadav, IM allaie, M Sankar and A Nasir (2013). Intraspecific and gender variation in hmcp4 gene of cysteine proteinase in Haemonchus contortus. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 83: 1271-1274,
  5. Singh D and Swarnkar CP. (2013). Comparative impact of conventional and strategic worm management schemes in sheep flocks of arid Rajasthan. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 83: 1128-1134.
  6. Singh D and Swarnkar CP. (2014). Influence of sheep breeds on the susceptibility to strongyle infection in Rajasthan. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84: 120-126.
  7. Singh D, Swarnkar CP and Sanyal PK. (2015). Dynamics of epidemiological intelligence for exploitation in effective worm management in sheep – A Rajasthan experience. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 85: 679-694.
  8. Sunil Kumar, Rajat Garg, Saroj Kumar, P.S. Banarjee, Hira Ram and A. Prasad. (2016).Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India. Vet. Parasitol, 218: 93-97.
  9. Swarnkar CP and Singh D. (2014). Epidemiology of ovine gastrointestinal parasites under different worm management strategies at an organized farm in arid Rajasthan. Indian J. Small Rumin., 21: 53-63.
  10. Swarnkar CP and Singh D. (2014). Influence of annual rainfall on epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep flocks of Rajasthan. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84: 1171-1176.