» Divison of pathology

Major Achievements


1970-1980

  • Diseases identified for the first time in the country: malignant catarrhal fever, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/ infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis, Mycoplasma agalactia in goats and M. bovigenitalium in cattle.
  • IFAT for Johne's disease and MIT for rabies used first time for diagnosis.
  • Modified Periodic Acid-Schiff reagent and turpentine oil as clearing agent was developed.
  • Ultra-structural alterations in Johne’s disease and bovine horn cancer were studied.
  • Diagnostic tests were developed: micro HI test for ND and EDS-76, and embryo susceptibility test for avian encephalomyelitis.

1980-1990

  • Classical swine fever: biological tests were conducted and the seed virus prepared.
  • Canine venereal sarcoma and sheep choroid plexus cells for Maedi-visna were successfully grown in tissue culture.
  • Goitre in 15 % goats in Bareilly area was identified.
  • MATSA test standardized for detection of Marek’s disease.
  • Vaccines developed: inactivated, oil-based tissue culture and/or embryo origin vaccines against ND, IBD, Reo, EDS-76, IBH and DVH; combined inactivated vaccines: ND, EDS-76 and IBD.
  • New pathogens detected for the first time: Reovirus from arthritis and stunted syndrome in 1986 and vvIBDV from IBD outbreak in poultry in 1988.
  • Diagnostic monitoring kits developed: COFAL kit for ALSV infection in 1986 and Dot-ELISA kit for RD vaccinal immunity in 1989.

1990-2000

  • Bacterial culture, AGID, ELISA, PCR, RE-analysis and DNA probes were developed for diagnosis and molecular identification of MAP (M. avium sub sp. paratuberculosis) infection.
  • Animal models (sheep & goat, rabbit and mouse) for paratuberculosis were developed.
  • Nucleic acids based diagnostic RT-PCR and TaqMan real time PCR were developed for CSFV diagnosis.
  • The prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Hematuria in Uttarakhand, levels of ptaquiloside and quercetin toxins in different ferns, and EBH pathology were determined.
  • Pathogens recovered for the first time: avian leucosis virus (ALV) subgroup “A” from bird suffering from osteopetrosis.
  • A new histochemical technique for the differentiation of quail heterophils and eosinophils in tissues developed.
  • Vaccines developed: thermo-stable IBD Indian strain vaccine, a highly proliferative vaccine strain of EDS-76 virus, live cell culture vaccines against MD, IBD, Reo, IB, ILT and Turkey pox.

2000-2010

  • Ochratoxin-A (OT-A), aflatoxin B1 (AT-B1), either alone or in combination were found to be quite common (0.05 to 3 ppm) in feeds/ ingredients in the country.
  • Experimental studies showed that AT- B1 induces hepatic cancer in rats. Both the toxins in rats and rabbits resulted into several gross, visceral and skeletal anomalies in fetuses/neonates.
  • Multiplex and real time PCRs developed for the diagnosis of MAP infection.
  • Indian MAP isolates were found to be “bison” type and PFGE type 25 by IS1311 gene PCR-REA and PFGE analyses.
  • Mechanism of cell death (apoptosis or necrosis) induced by MAP infection in bovine macrophages elucidated.
  • National Classical Swine Fever Referral Laboratory was established.
  • Biotinylated and DIG labeled DNA and RNA probes were developed and applied for CSFV detection by in situ hybridization.
  • PMWS caused by porcine circovirus-2 was reported for the first time in the country.

2010-till 2016

  • Mannan oligosaccharide and Ascorbic acid were found to ameliorate the toxic effect of OT-A up to 85-90%, suggesting their field application.
  • Indian isolates of CSFV belonged to genotypes 1.1 and 2.2 reported first time in the country.
  • Swine influenza disease was confirmed for the first time in the country and the virus revealed close homology to the human H1N1 pandemic (2009) virus.
  • Porcine circovirus-2 was isolated and its genetic characterization indicated prevalence of PCV2a and PCV2b and genetic recombinants of these genotypes.
  • BPV-1 & -2 identified in cutaneous and mucosal warts of cattle/buffaloes and yaks; sarcoids and squamous cell carcinomas in horses, mules and ponies; BPV-1, -2, -5 and -10 and their combinations in cattle and buffaloes by PCR.
  • Cancer biomarkers studied in canine tumours, urinary bladder cancers and experimentally induced tumours of rats.
  • PCR standardized for the diagnosis of IBD, IB, MD, IBH, EDS-76, CIAV, Reo virus, Duck plague, Fowl pox, Turkey pox, Quail pox and ND virus infections.
  • Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of MDV, ALV-A and REV developed and a LAMP test for MDV-1 oncogene meq developed.
  • JEV isolated from stillborn piglets with hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly first time and was sequenced.
  • Pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis was established in laboratory mice model.
  • Wildlife diseases reported since 1984: ICH (wolf and sloth bear), CD (tigers, lion and red panda), ND (peacocks), rabies (sloth bear, sambar deer and rhinoceros); leptospirosis (carnivores and herbivores), TB ( sloth bear, spotted deer and nilgai); Anaplocephala enteritis (rhinoceros), Dirofilaria immitis, Taenia pisiformis and Toxocara cati (tigers), Physaloptera (tiger and leopards), schistosomosis (dolphin), Aleurostrongylus (leopard cat), lung worms (leopard), Gossia/calyptospora protozoan (ghariyals), fasciolosis (black bucks); systemic aspergillosis (peacocks and Himalayan griffon vultures) etc.

Patents:

  • Low cost multiplication technology of salt tolerant bio-growth enhancers (Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Trichoderma) for increasing productivity of agri-horti crops in normal and sodic soils. (R.B. Rai,. T. Damodaran,. R.S Rathore, R. Kannan, D.K. Sharma, A.P. Srivastava, Vinay Kumar Mishra, S.K. Jha, and Vijaya Laxmi Sah) (Application No. 3857/DEL/2012 dated: 14/12/12 )
  • Low cost technology for prevention and treatment of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis in bovines. (R.B. Rai, T. Damodaran, Jaisunder, V.K. Gupta, Balvir Singh, Sweta Rai, Hamid Ali, R.A. Ram and A.K.Singh) (Application No. 1154/DEL/2013)

Awards & Honours:

  • International
    • Certificate of Appreciation to team working on “Lymphosarcoma/leukemia in Indian buffaloes” by the USDA to a team member N.S. Parihar.
    • Nine months training/ SIDA Fellowships to O.P. Paliwal, S.C. Mukherjee, Lal Krishna, A.S. Panisup and R. Somvanshi at Uppasala, Sweden.
    • FAO-Fellowship, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada to J.M. Kataria for training in the area of molecular biology.
    • UNDP Fellowship to A.S. Panisup for training on immunobiotechnology in Canada.
    • TOMBIT sponsored 9 months molecular biology training to B.N.Tripathi and G. Saikumar at Institute of Animal Health Compton, UK.
    • Four months molecular characterization of Indian Mab training to B.N. Tripathi at Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • National
    • ICAR Professor of Eminence to Dr B.S. Rajya.
    • National Fellow Award of ICAR to Dr R. Somvanshi (1995-2005).
    • Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Award (ICAR) to Dr J.M. Kataria.
    • Bharat Ratna Dr C. Subramaniam ICAR Best Teacher Award to Dr J.M. Kataria.
    • UP Council of Science & Technology, Lucknow Vigyan Ratan Award to Dr R. Somvanshi
    • Dr. Rajendra Prasad Award (ICAR) to Dr S. C. Dubey and Dr R. Somvanshi for book " Bher aur bkairyon ke rog aur unki roktham" and Dr R. Somvanshi for book "Madhya aur adhunik kaleen Bharat me pashu palan evam chikitsha vigyan".
    • Jawaharlal Nehru Award (ICAR) to Dr R.N. Sharma on his doctoral thesis entitled “Pathogenesis and pathologic features of Marek’s disease in vitro and in vivo” under the guidance of Dr. G.C. Mohanty, submitted to Agra University
    • Jawaharlal Nehru Award (ICAR) to Dr R.V.S. Pawaiya on his doctoral thesis entitled “Pathology of chemically induced neoplasms and evaluation of molecular markers in diagnosis of animal tumours” under the guidance of Dr. Ram Kumar, Deemed University, IVRI, Izatnagar.
    • Dr. Meghnad Saha Award of Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, for writing original books in Life Sciences in Hindi: Prachin Bharat mein Pashu Palan evam Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan (Dr R. Somvanshi), Himalaya ke Upyogi Pashu (Dr R. Somvanshi) and Bher bakriyon ke rog aur unki roktham (Dr S. C. Dubey and R. Somvanshi).
    • Dr P.K.R. Iyer was appointed as an independent panel member to examine tissues of animals and man exposed to Methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas poisoning occurred at Bhopal in 1986.
    • Faculty Best Teacher Award of Deemed University, IVRI, Izatnagar to Drs N.S. Parihar, O.P. Paliwal, J.M. Kataria, R. Somvanshi, A.K. Sharma and B.N. Tripathi.