Pharmacology & Toxicology Division

Major Achievements

Research

A. Patents

  • Process patent for herbal formulation against mange in animals (granted)
  • Process patent of indigenous herbal formulation for diarrhea in animals (with NBA)
  • Herbal formulation for the treatment of haemonchosis in sheep (with IPO)

B. Formulations developed

S.No. Product Use
1. Mangol-LA Treatment of mange in large animals
2. Mangol-SA Treatment of mange in small animals
3. Mange cure-LA Treatment of mange in large animals
4. Mange cure-SA Treatment of mange in small animals
5. Ringworm cure Treatment of ringworm in small and large animals
6. Burn cure Treatment of burn
7. Diarrhea cure Treatment of nonspecific diarrhea in animals
8. Anti-haemonchosis formulation Treatment of haemonchosis in sheep

C. Salient Research Achievements

    Inflammation Research

  • The role of nitric oxide in osteoarthritis and neuropathic pain was identified and the importance of S-methylisothiourea, an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in reducing pain in these conditions was suggested.
  • S-methylisothiourea was found to reduce pain and inflammation in arthritis and its hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects were demonstrated.
  • The role of oxidative stress in chronic neuropathic pain was identified and significant reduction of pain by N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant was demonstrated.
  • Atorvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, was found to be effective in reducing neuropathic pain and osteoarthritis.
  • Betulinic acid, a triterpenoid prevents acute lung and kidney injury reflecting its potential to have protective role in polymicrobial sepsis in mice.
  • Wound Healing

  • Hemin, bilirubin, substance-P, curcumin, quercetin, deferroxamine and Shorea robusta resin promoted wound healing in normal as well as diabetic rats.
  • Indigenous drugs

  • Various aspects of pharmacology of a rare plant, Entada pursaetha was worked out and its importance in reducing inflammation, hepatotoxicity, osteoarthritis and inflammatory bowel disease was identified.
  • Essential oils of Cedrus deodara and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) showed anthelmintic activity against Fasciola.
  • Alcoholic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Sheesham) showed cardioprotective effect in rats.
  • Palasonin, isolated from Butea frondosa seeds was found to possess anthelmintic activity.
  • Andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata leaves demonstrated marked liver protective activity.
  • Cardiovascular Pharmacology

  • Bay-41-2272, a vasodilator dilated sheep pulmonary artery through the activation of sodium pump.
  • α2-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions in ovine resistance pulmonary artery was found to be primarily dependent on intracellular Ca2+ with a small contribution from Ca2+-influx through voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels.
  • Arachidonic acid inhibited Na+ - K+ - ATPase via cytochrome P-450, lipoxygenase and protein kinase C-dependent pathways in sheep pulmonary artery.
  • Atorvastatin pretreatment and post-treatment with imipenem antibiotic significantly improved survival time and hemodynamic functions in septic mice.
  • TRPV4 channels were characterized in vascular endothelium of rat pulmonary artery.
  • Smooth muscle Pharmacology

  • Co-transmission in rat urinary bladder was demonstrated. In the rat urinary bladder, fast and slow components of neurogenic response are mediated through ATP and acetyl choline, respectively.
  • Neurogenic noncholinergic responses were found relatively less susceptible to calcium channel blockers and low Ca2+ medium than was the atropine-sensitive cholinergic component of the neurogenic response in rat urinary bladder.
  • Lipopolysachharide-induced enhanced myometrial contractility was mediated by increased calcium influx and endogenous prostaglandin release.
  • TRPV4 channels and β3-adrenoceptors were characterized in pregnant mouse uterus.
  • Arsenic Toxicity

  • Toxicodynamic interactions of arsenic with anilofos, malathion, chlorpyriphos, endosulfan or ochratoxin as well as the ameliorative potential of curcumin and piperine against concurrent exposure to arsenic and cypermethrin and of quercetin against arsenic and chlorpyrifos co-exposure were assessed.
  • Subchronic exposure to a mixture of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, nickel, iron and manganese) in concentrations above their mode contamination levels in Indian ground-waters was demonstrated to produce systemic toxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.
  • Midway withdrawal of acetaminophen treatment during the course of arsenic exposure was reported to increase arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
  • The ability of arsenic to reduce the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, viz., ketoprofen, meloxicam and paracetamol was demonstrated.
  • Atorvastatin was shown to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension by restoring endothelial function with improvement in aortic NO signaling, normalization of vascular redox signaling and attenuation of dyslipidemia.
  • Angiotensin II signaling was demonstrated to enhance in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder, where reactive oxygen species could augment the angiotensin II signaling through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

Academics

The Division has produced 30 M.V.Sc and 24 Ph.D students in the last five years and among them 49 students are placed at various National and International Institutes.

Details of the Divisional students Placements:

S.No. Name of the organization of Placement 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
1. ICAR 1 4 2
2. CAU/SAU 3 3 1
3. Central Govt. 2 1
4. State Govt. 4 3 5 2 3
5. PDF/Abroad 1
6. Entrepreneur/ Others 3 2 2 3 2 2
Total 6 10 13 8 7 5

Training/Seminars

The Division has conducted three short courses during the last five years.

S.No. Title Duration Funding Agency
1. Application of molecular pharmacology techniques in drug development 4-13 October, 2010 ICAR
2. In vitro Toxicodynamics 5 -14 September, 2011 ICAR
3. Recent Advances in Pharmacological Techniques 7-16 September, 2015 ICAR

PNT-IVRI

Publications

Division has published 77 Research Papers during last five years. Among which 57 were published in international journals and 20 were in national journals.