» Division of Animal Genetics

Achievements

1945-1950

  • Farm Animal Genetics Section (FAGS) was established in July 1945 by transferring some Hariana and Murrah buffaloes from Cattle and Buffalo farm.
  • A Hormone laboratory was also established in 1945 for preparation of Pregnant Mare Serum (PMS).
  • Animal Genetics section started working as full-fledged section, comprising of Regional Artificial Insemination (AI) substation, four subsections for research on Genetics; AI; Biochemistry and Physiology of Reproduction; and Dairying.
  • AI was introduced in an organised in 1944 and methodologies were developed for ideal collection, preservation and transport of semen.

1951-1960

  • During early fifties, full-fledged Division of Animal Genetics was established.
  • A simple method for estimating percentage of abnormal spermatozoa in semen sample was developed
  • Field application studies of artificial insemination were carried out.
  • Sex drive and service behaviour of Hariana bulls was investigated. In Hariana bull two ejaculates and in case of Hill bull, one ejaculate once a week was found best.
  • Improvement in semen freezing technique suited to field conditions using low cost polythene tubing (TUPOL-IVRI) was made.
  • Tests developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle and equines.
  • In 1959-1960, a fully equipped training cum research laboratory on drosophila research was established.

1961-1970

  • Analysis of 6 X 6 diallel cross of egg production and hatchability revealed more dominance than recessive genes affecting egg production and hatchability in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • A 3X3 diallel test in 3 selected lines of Drosophila obtained after 5-8 generations of selection revealed that low production and lowered wing size were correlated.
  • Bar chromosome with inversion in Drosophila melanogaster tend to retard hatchability and enhanced egg production while normal X chromosome enhanced hatchability.
  • Polygenic activity of 2 attached X chromosome found to interact negatively with normal stock chromosomes and suppressed egg hatching and increased wing size in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Chromosome substitution technique effect of III chromosome on egg production, size and hatchability in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that Dicheate chromosomes had significantly larger eggs.
  • Genetic parameters were estimated for economic characters of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse and laboratory animals including drosophila, rat, mice and rabbit.
  • Genetic and phenotypic variation was studied in shape and size of udder in Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Hariana and Ongole breeds of cattle.
  • F1 crossbreds were found much superior in milk producing capacity and reasonable good in draught capacity
  • Under good management conditions Zebu-Jersey cross gave 127 percent more milk than poor management conditions.
  • Three new blood group antigens were isolated in cattle.
  • Some of the cattle blood group reagents were found reactive with buffalo RBC indicating usefulness of normal buffalo serum for cattle blood group reagents.
  • An antigenic factor similar to J factor of cattle was isolated from buffalo blood.
  • In Hariana cattle Blood group factors Z’ and M were significantly related with gestation period, factors R and W with number of services per pregnancy and Iz33 and Iz36 with dry period and factors W and Xi significantly correlated with first lactation milk yield.
  • Negative relationship found between fat% in a lactation and lack of Iz5, Iz8 and Bf2 factors in Hariana cattle while Positive relationship found between Iz15 and Bf2 factors and lactation yields in Hariana cattle
  • In crossbred cattle birth weight in crossbreds significantly associated with factors A and Iz34, factor A with calving interval while absence of Iz17 increases lactation length, M and Iz17 factor decreased milk production in first lactation.
  • Haemoglobin typing of crossbreds revealed that crossbreds were in genetic equilibrium at haemoglobin locus.
  • G, K, H and F systems were identified as new blood group systems in Sheep.
  • Starch gel technique for separation of buffalo haemoglobin was standardized.
  • Three phenotypes were observed in Hariana for transferrins and albumins.
  • Amylase and serum cholesterol levels in Hariana were reversible with increasing age.
  • Lactation was successfully induced by hormone therapy in barren fertile cows and heifers.
  • Induction of oestrus, super ovulation and transplantation of fertilized ova in buffaloes was carried out as early as 1954.
  • It was evaluated that generally Bovine reactors to tuberculin remained anoestrous for long time and disturbed oestrous cycle was seen in a few cases.
  • Heat tolerance tests for Indian cattle under field conditions were evolved.
  • Positive genetic correlation were obtained between skin thickness and age at first calving while negative genetic correlation between skin thickness and FLMY in Sahiwal and Red Sindhi.
  • An All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) for “Studying Behavioural Pattern of Zebu Crossbreds”, started in 1968 at IVRI as one of the two centre was merged into AICRP on Cattle in 1969 with the major objective to evolve dairy cattle breed by crossing native Hariana with frozen semen of elite temperate dairy breeds viz. Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss and Jersey.

1971-1980

  • In 1975, Farm Animal Genetics Section (FAGS) section was renamed as Livestock Production Research (Cattle and Buffalo) section.
  • Genetic studies were initiated to find the best cross combination using Landrace and Large white for optimum growth, body measurement, reproduction, carcass quality in pigs.
  • Quantitative genetic studies were conducted by taking Tribolium castaneum as model.
  • Perusal of data on incidence of mastitis, tuberculosis, brucellosis and FMD at organized farms revealed that zebu as well as exotic cattle had comparatively higher incidence (17.1 to 17.3 %) as compared to crossbreds (14.7 %).
  • Occurrence of FMD was more in low hemoglobin group, while FMD occurrence frequency decreases with increase in lymphocytes count.
  • Increase in Rambouillet inheritance increases the body weight but not the greasy fleece weight at first shearing.
  • Among various crossbred grades, the animals of 15/16 Friesian grade were best and at least as good as pure Friesian for milk yield per lactation as well as 300 days milk yield.
  • A Laboratory Animal Research division was started in 1977 with the objective of producing small laboratory animals such as rabbit, rat, mice and guinea pig for research purposes and biological production.

1981-1990

  • Studies showed that cows which calved during summer season had significantly higher milk yield than those calved during other season.
  • In Indian buffaloes, the highest average first lactation milk yield was obtained for the animals having age at first calving of 51 months.
  • Genetics of ovary and testis in Tribolium castaneum using radiation and chemicals showed that the hatchability was higher in low dose groups and vice versa.
  • Computer programs for analyzing data sets by least squares, simplified regressed least squares and BLUP methods were developed for evaluation of breeding animals.
  • Breeding of goats for pashmina production and breeding of laboratory animals was carried out at mukteshwar campus.
  • Studies on fibre diameter showed that females of Angora rabbits had significantly greater average diameter than males.
  • From the base stock of rabbit, a line was selected for high litter weight at 6 weeks of age and a line was selected for high body weight at 16 weeks of age.
  • In a study of shape and size variation of gametes, Sahiwal showed longest and broadest head.

1991-2000

  • Least square analysis of records of 632 lactations from 327 HF cows raised at Izatnagar and Hessarghata revealed that overall means for 300 days milk yield were 3560 and 2774 Kg respectively.
  • To identify infertility, morphological abnormality of different farm animals was initiated by karyotyping studies.
  • Studies on genetics of disease resistance for mastitis and FMD showed significantly higher effect of disease on age at first calving, lactation yield and length.
  • Adjustment of sample records in cattle and buffaloes revealed that milk yield up to 4th month of lactation is sufficient to predict the total milk yield with acceptable accuracy.
  • Genetic study on component of life time productivity of Murrah buffaloes suggested that selection for increase first lactation milk yield would also bring genetic improvement on life time milk yield.
  • Higher heritability of MY/FLL and MY/FCI and their correlation with FLMY, suggested that selection on the basis of these traits would results in higher genetic gain in FLMY than expected from direct selection for FLMY.

2000-2010

  • Effect of all the genotypes of CXCR2 gene was non-significant on mastitis tolerance/occurrence in the crossbred cows.
  • Cloned and characterized the complete CDS of BMP15, GDF9 and IGBP3 gene of different breeds of Indian goat. Identified new SNPs in BMP15 gene of Black Bengal goat
  • Full length cDNA of serum lysozyme gene of riverine buffalo and crossbred cattle (447 bp) was cloned and characterized.
  • PCR-SSCP revealed polymorphisms (SSCP) in 268 and 287 bp fragments of serum lysozyme gene were identified in four breeds of buffaloes (viz., Murrah, Surti, Mehsana and Bhadawari) and crossbred cattle. While 230 and 275 bp fragments were found to be polymorphic in goat.
  • cDNA encoding entire coding sequences of Toll like receptor, MIP1-alpha and TNF-alpha were cloned and characterized in buffalo.
  • Significant (P<0.01) association of ITGB2/MspI genotypes with the percent neutrophil and lymphocyte was observed in buffalo.
  • PCR-RFLP assay revealed StyI polymorphism in Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene of mithun.
  • cDNA of uterine milk protein (UTMP) and genomic sequence (>4 kb) of ghrelin gene of buffalo has been cloned and characterized. Expression of UTMP, UCRP and Ghrelin gene were up-regulated during luteal phase of estrous cycle and early pregnancy in buffalo.
  • MspI genotypes in exon 5-6 of ITGB2 gene in buffaloes were significantly associated with H2O2 production.
  • BoLA DQA exon 2-3, DQB exon 2 and DRB3 exon 2 are highly polymorphic in Umblacherry cattle. Sequencing results suggested that the DRB3.2 Rsa I-v seems to be a new genotype.
  • Animals carrying GT13 allele of GTn microsatellite polymorphism at 3UTR of SLC11A1 gene demonstrated improved macrophage functions while induced with brucella LPS.
  • Novel SNPs in the BMP15, GDF9, BMPR1B, IGF-I, IGF-II, Follistatin and IGFBP3 genes using SSCP and targeted re-sequencing were identified which might have association with high prolificacy in black Bengal goat.
  • New garbage processing indigenous earthworm strain “Perionyx ceylenesis” designated as “Jai Gopal” having high fecundity heat tolerance and inhabiting ability on animal and farm waste was developed. A design of vermin-biomanure sieving machine was developed. Package of practices of recycling of animal and farm waste using vermibiotechnology and mechanical cow composting machine was developed.

2011-2014

  • PCR-SSCP revealed two genotypes each of exon 4 and intron 6 of lactoferrin gene namely EE, EF and AA, AB respectively. Genotype EF and AA had significant effect on mastitis incidence in comparison EE and genotype AB.
  • PCR-SSCP of DRB3.2 gene revealed two genotypes namely AA and AB and logistic regression showed that genotype AA was highly significant for mastitis incidence in comparison to genotype AB.
  • Foetal myoblast cell line was established and assessed to be best in vitro model for studying MSTN knockdown. Three siRNA construct successfully down-regulated MSTN among which siRNA-3 resulted in maximum knockdown.
  • In the PBMC derived macrophage cells/ from goat, after induction with E. coli lipopolysaccharide, expression of IFN-G remained unchanged, while expression of IL2 and Il-10 was up-regulated (p<0.01) by 1.5 to 2 folds and expression of NRAMP1 was down-regulated (p<0.01). Significant reduction in the numbers of macrophages undergoing apoptosis accompanied with down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (BAX & CASP3) suggest a survival mechanism adopted by MAP to remain viable and multiply inside the macrophage and thus explaining the chronic nature of the disease.
  • Based on 16 SSCP patterns of four polymorphic regions of CatSper gene, three haplotypes were identified and haplotye II and III showed significant with three motility parameters viz high mass motility(MM), high initial progressive motility (IPM) and high post thaw motility (PTM) in crossbred cattle.
  • Microarray analysis using RNA from spermatozoa in freezable and non-freezable semen revealed 160 up-regulated genes and 145 down regulated genes. Among these, up-regulation of CTRB1 (chymotrypsinogen B1) gene and down regulation of CYB5R4 (cytochrome b5 reductase 4) gene was validated using real time qPCR.
  • Among16 Indian sheep breeds, presence of FecB mutation was identified in Garole, Kuzi and Shahabadi breeds only. Genotyping of FecG locus in five sheep breeds i.e. viz. Garole, Kuzi, Shahabadi, Balangir and Bonpala showed presence of only one genotype i.e. FecGHH, suggesting fixing of FecG gene in these breeds.
  • Novel SNPs in the exonic regions of BMP15, GDF9, BMPR1B, IGF-I, IGF-II, Follistatin and IGFBP3 genes were identified using SSCP and targeted re-sequencing of polymorphic SSCP patterns in five different breeds of goat.
  • Under Sahiwal conservation project, total Sahiwal population increased to 603 in two Gaushalas and 147 in villages around Bareilly. Acceptability for Sahiwal frozen semen was reflected by increasing trend in number of AIs from 258 in July, 2013 to 707 in March, 2014.
  • Out of 37 SNPs identified from candidate genes influencing diseases resistance, 7 were found to have significant effect on occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in case and control population.
  • Polymorphism at 18 loci was significantly associated with the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in case and control population. A total of 13 private microsatellite alleles were observed either in case or control population and five of these i.e. BM1818-270 BP, Tgla126-130 bp, Slc11A1-238 bp, BMS499-106 bp and BMS2213-162 were promising private alleles.
  • One SNP i.e. rs41945014 located at the peak level of the QTL was associated with the susceptibility to bovine MAP infection.
  • A total of 5 SNPs i.e. 2 from TLR1, 2 from TLR4 and one from Slc11A1, out of 21 SNPS from 9 candidate genes showed significant effect on occurrence of bovine brucellosis.
  • A protocol has been developed for isolation & culture of PBMC derived macrophage and Infection time of 4 h was found to be optimum for infecting goat/buffalo macrophages as well as for internalization of MAP and MF at MOI of 1:10.
  • A whole-genome (Black Bengal Breed, Male, 2.8 GB, 30X) has been sequenced and assembled.
  • An in-vitro model i.e. challenge of the cultured PBMCs with the ground up tick supernatant (GUTS) of H. annatolicum having T. annulata sporozoites was developed. Significant differences in expression of the TLR10, SIRPA, cMAF, MHC class II DQα between the stimulated and non-stimulated PBMCs showed the effectiveness of the model.
  • Out of 20 SNPs, genotyped in Case: Control population comprising of 47 positive and 47 negative cattle, one SNP (rs55617172) was significantly associated with bovine paratuberaculosis as the CC and AC genotypes were significantly higher in Case group.
  • Crossbred piglets showed much better response to CSF vaccine in comparison to the desi pigs as 78 % of the crossbred pigs vaccinated were high responder against 7.8 % in desi group. While in crossbred pigs, no low responder was found, 41 % of the desi pigs were low responder.
  • There is significant (P≤0.05) within genetic group/breed and between genetic group variations in response to CSF Vaccination among piglets.
  • Humoral immune response processes and gene network was highly enriched in crossbred in comparison to desi (indigenous) in response to CSF vaccination resulted in more antibody production in crossbred piglets than indigenous.