» Biochemistry & Food Science Section

Salient Achievements

Division of Biochemistry was established in 1972 during the Fifth Five year plan under the guidance of Dr. C.M. Singh, the then Director of the institute. It was realized that the basic understanding of chemical processes in the cell is essential for every student of biology. The mandate of the division since its inception is to carry out basic and applied research in the areas of animal health and production and to impart post-graduate education

Research Areas: Clinical Biochemistry, Reproductive Biochemistry, Host-pathogen Biology, Biochemical Toxicology, Cancer Biochemistry, Membrane Biology, High throughput disease diagnosis

1972-1980

  • Biochemical studies on buffalo milk – Predominant component of buffalo milk lipid was triglyceride, having both short and long chain fatty acids. Notable feature of buffalo milk phospholipids was the higher concentration of sphingomyelin.
  • Lipids of buffalo spermatozoa – The buffalo spermatozoa do not utilize endogenous lipids for energy generation.
  • Physicochemical properties of buffalo muscles – Buffalo meat had higher moisture content as compared to beef. Moisture and glycogen contents decrease with advancing age. A ~61 kDa meat tenderizing enzyme was isolated from unripe fruits of Cucumis pubescens that appears to be related with papain.

1980-1990

  • Angiotensin converting enzyme – The presence of enzyme was studied in different animal species and it released during in vitro capacitation of the spermatozoa and it may have a role in sperm activation.
  • Enzyme inhibitors in buffalo seminal plasma – Trypsin inhibitor was isolated and characterized and suggested to be involved in semen protein metabolism.
  • Buffalo muscle proteins – The skeletal muscle proteins of buffalo were categorized into highly metabolic sarcoplasmic proteins, moderately metabolized myofibr-illar proteins and slow metabolic stroma proteins.
  • Clinical biochemistry of buffalo – The cationic peptides isolated from buffalo PBM cells were active against gram negative (E. coli) and gram positive (S. aureus) bacteria.
  • Parasite biochemistry – An ELISA for Dicyocaulus filaria was developed.

1990-2000

  • Biochemical studies on buffalo pituitary – The buffalo anterior pituitary showed the presence of a possible pro-hormone of growth hormone and prolactin.
  • Spermatozoa motility inhibitor – The Spermatozoa motility inhibitor was isolated from Fowl semen that showed ant-bacterial property.
  • Biochemical toxicology- The biochemical basis of bracken fern toxicity and the hepato-protective effect of Liv 52 and Kumaryasava were studied. Characterization of goat liver glutathione-S-transferase and its role in de-toxification was elucidated.
  • Host pathogen biology – Defensins from different epithelial linings of buffalo tissues showed anti-bacterial properties. The Ocimum sanctum extracts showed antiviral activity against Bovine herpes virus 1 infected MDBK cells through inhibition of virus adsorption to the cells. The virus induced apoptosis in infected bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

2000-2010

  • Matrix metalloproteases and cancer – Different forms of Matrix metalloproteases were identified in canine cancer and their role in metastasis was investigated. An ELISA was developed for MMP- 7, MMP – 11 as diagnostic marker for dog mammary cancer.
  • Clinical Biochemistry - Further studies on buffalo defensins were carried out to analyse their role in host defense. The genes related to the innate immunity (TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4) in black buck and goat were studied. Complete cDNA encoding IL2, IL4, IL18, TNFα and IFNγ in Nilgai were sequenced.
  • Host-pathogen biology – Micro array DNA chip for livestock virus detection developed. The feeding of Ocimum tenuiflorum and Curcuma caseia extracts as oral immunomodulators can augment immune responses was studied in mice. Calreticulin of Haemocus contortus was identified as the anti-coagulant factor and shown to act as an immunomodulator by binding to complement C1q and the C-reactive protein.

2010-2018

  • Matrix metalloproteases in cancer – The therapeutic and prophylactic potentials of MMP-9 as Xenogenic canine vaccine was tried in mice model where the mammary cancer was induced by 4T1 cell lines. Initial results are encouraging.
  • Host-pathogen biology-
    1. Methodology for codon de-optimization for reducing the virulence of S. Typhimurium optimized.
    2. Standardized and employed a battery of genomics and proteomics approaches along with live animal studies to determine the roles of Msr and PIMT in the Salmonella virulence. Msr and PIMT deletion mutants of S. Typhimurium had reduced virulence.
    3. GAPDH of H. contortus was identified as the complement C3 binding protein; this interaction shuts up the complement cascades and defines a novel survival strategy of the parasite. A 95 amino acids stretch of GAPDH was generated and this smaller fragment had both – the C3 binding site as well as the antigenic region of the enzyme. Further, the fragment stimulated PBMCs in vitro and showed much higher stability as compared to parent GAPDH. This protein may find therapeutic application.
  • Reproductive biochemistry – Regucalcin was identified as an anti-capacitatory and cryoprotective protein in frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa. In addition, reference genes for qRT-PCR data normalization for frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa were identified.
  • Membrane biology –
    1. Complete multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and partial Organic anion transporter (OAT3) coding region in Gyps vulture and domestic chicken were characterized and two MRP4 transcript variants were identified. MDCK cell lines stably transfected with eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding transcript variants under CMV promoter were developed.
    2. Membrane cholesterol regulate the cross talk between caspases and machineries of autophagy. Cholesterol modulation by Methyl-β-cyclodextrins induces cell death via down regulating the caspases-8, which facilitate the induction of autophagic cell death. Further, the depleting membrane cholesterol reduced the metastasis potential of cancer cells.

Manual

Analytical Biochemistry Lab Manual

Analytical Biochemistry Lab Manual

“Analytical Biochemistry – A practical manual” published by Communication Centre, IVRI, Izatnagar.